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Aloegelé

Aloe i äldre litteratur


Fullständiga utdrag ur Papyrus Ebers och Plinius naturhistoria sådana de föreligger i engelska översättningar (några svenska finns inte) avseende växten aloe och dess användning. Det framgår här med all önskvärd tydlighet att det var den intorkade saften man använde i Egypten och Rom, inte geléet.

Papyrus Ebers
Ebers-papyrusens femton omnämnanden av alo *fornegyptiska (?t'w3), av översättarna med ett reserverande frågetecken tolkat som Aloe socotrina. Avskriften nedan är exakt med konstiga tecken och allt; ordet aloe har endast fetstilsmarkerats och hieroglyfer som översättarna lämnat otolkade har spärrats. Egyptiska mått. Om Papyrus Ebers ca 1050 f. Kr: Örtkännare f. Kr.
XLVIII
Another to cool a head which is ill: Yellow ochre |, frankincense |, aloe |, w3nb |, cinnamon |, stag's horn |, gum |, ntrjt |, dbn of the mason |, d3rt |, water |, are ground and applied to the head.
LVII
Another to expel blood [extravasation] in the eyes: Inkpowder |, malachite ||||, stibium |, aloe |, d3rt |, water |, are ground fine and put in the eyes.
LVII
Another to expel a grain in the eye (hordeolum?): stibium |, malachite |, d3rt |, aloe |, sagapen |, are mixed with water and applied to the eyelid.
LIX
Another to expel pterygium in the eye, the first remedy after it has been perceived: honey nt hprj or gw of honey, is applied thereto for 4 days. The 2 nd remedy: malachite bj3j 4 ro, stibium 4 ro, aloe 4 ro, sj3 from Upper Egypt 4 ro, are ground together and applied thereto for 4 days.
LIX
Another: red ochre |, aloe |, magnetite |, calamine (?) |, ostrich-egg |, sj3 from Upper Egypt |, powder of hnwt |, honey |, are miwed together and applied to the eyes.
LX
Another to improve the sight: stibium 4 ro, aloe 8 ro, balm of Mecca 8 ro, ink-powder 1/2 ro, sjr from Upper Egypt 1/2 ro, myrrh 1/2 ro, are mixed together, and the eyes are anointed therewith.
LXI
What is used from the 3rd wintermonth to the 4th wntermonth: stibium, sj3 from Upper Egypt, ink-powder, calamine (?), aloe, equal parts, are put into the eyes.
LXI
Another to expel catarrh in the head by means of ointment: stibium |, aloe 4 ro, balm of Mecca 2 ro, calamine (?) 2 ro, ink-powder 1/2 ro, dry myrrh 1/2 ro, fruit of tntj 1/2 ro.
LXII
Another to expel white spots that have arisen in the eyes: stibium |, aloe |, are ground fine and put into the eyes.
LXII
Another to expel blear-eyedness, darkness, dim sight and afflictions that have arisen in the eyes: aloe |, malachite |, powder of d3rt |, juice of acacia |, chip of ebony |, water of kbw |, are mixed together, made into a dough, dried and pounded with water; (it) is applied to the eyelids.
LXIII
Another to expel catarrh in the nose: stibium |, aloe |, dry myrrh |, honey |, (it) is anointed therewith for 4 days. Make (it) and thou shalt see; behold, it is a true remedy.
LXIII
Another ointment, prepared by the high-preast of Heliopolis Chui, the venerable: stibium |, malachite , sj3 from Upper Egypt |, sj3 from Lower Egypt |, red ochre |, aloe | lees of honey.
LXIII
Another to expel grain in the eye: stibium |, balm of Mecca |, aloe |, the eye is anointed therewith.
LXIV
Another remedy to expel grain in the eye: balm of Mecca |, stibium |, aloe |, the eyes are anointed therewith.
LXXIX
Remedy to relieve the members: cat's fat |, aloe |, gallnut of ikrw |, are mixed together and (it) is rubbed therewith.

Plinius
Plinius sex omnämnanden av läkemedlet aloe (latin: aloe), vars moderväxt 1900-talets översättare tolkar som Aloe vera. I XXVII:14 talas om färsk saft, som lär ska användas i provinsen Asien. Avskriften är exakt med fetstilsmarkeringar av ordet aloe tillagda. Romerska mått. Om Plinius Naturhistoria ca år 70: Örtkännare e. Kr.
Bok 14:8
The importance of the wine of Beziers does not extend outside the Gallic provinces; and about the rest of the wines grown in the Province of Narbonne no positive statement can be made, inasmuch as the dealers have set up a regular factory for the purpose and colour them by means of smoke, and I regret to say also by employing noxious herbs and drugs - inasmuch as a dealer actually uses aloe for adultering the flavour and the colour of his wines.
Bok 20:51
Of the other traditions about rue a remarkable one is that, although it is agreed that rue is by nature hot, yet a bunch of rue boiled in rose oil with one ounce of aloes checks the perspiration of those who have rubbed themselves with it, and that its use as food hinders the generative powers. Accordingly it is prescribed for spermatorrhoea and for frequent amorous dreams.
Bok 21:43
It is a fact, however, that honey wine made with poisionous honey is, after maturing, quite harmless, and that there is nothing better than this honey, mixed with costum, for improving the skin of women, or, mixed with aloes, for the treatment of bruises.
Bok 26:38
It is by relaxing the stomach that scamonium too brings away bile and loosens the bowels, unless indeed to two oboli of it are added two drachmae of aloes.
Bok 26:38
The bastard kind [of scamonium] is detected by the taste, for the genuine burns the tongue. It is to be used when two years old, being of no use either before or after. It has been prescribed by itself in water or in hydromel and salt, the dose being four oboli, but most effective with aloes, though honey wine must be taken as soon as purging begins.
Bok 27:3
The aloe bears a recemblance to the squill, but it is larger, and has more fleshy leaves, and with slanting streaks. Its stem is tender, red in the centre, and not unlike anthericus; the root is single, as it were a stake sunk into the ground. It has an oppressive smell, and a bitter taste. The most valued kind is imported from India, but it also grows in the province of Asia. This kind is used only for wounds, the freshly gathered leaves, or the juice, having a wonderful power of uniting. For this reason it is planted in conical jars, as is the greater aizoüm. Some, before the seed ripens, make an incision in the stem to get the juice; some do so in the leaves as well. Drops too form spontaneously on it, and adhere. Some therefore recommend that the ground where the aloe has been planted should be beaten down hard, so as to prevent absorption. Some have reported that in Judaea beyond Jerusalem can be found mineral aloes. This however is the most inferior kind of all, and no other is darker or more moist. So the best aloes will be fatty and shiny, of a ruddy colour, friable, compact like liver, and easily melted. The kind to be rejected is dark and hard, gritty, and adultered with gum and acacia, the adulteration being easily detected by the taste. The nature of an aloe is bracing, astringent, and gently warming. There are many uses for it, but the chief is to relax the bowels, for it is almost the only laxative that is also a stomach tonic, no ill effects whatever resulting from its use. A drachma is taken in drink, but for fluxes of the stomach a spoonful in two cyathi of warm or cold water is taken twice or three times a day at intervals, as circumstances require; but for purging the bowels the maximum dose is three drachmae, which is more effective if food is taken after the draught. With a dry wine it prevents the hair from falling out, the head being thoroughly rubbed in the contrary way to the hair. It relieves headache if it is applied in vinegar and rose oil to the temples and forehead, or a more dilute solution may be poured over them. All eye troubles, it is agreed, are cured by the aloe, but it is specific for itch and scaliness of the eyelids; it is also good, applied with honey, especially with Pontic honey, for marks and bruises; for diseased tonsils or gums, for all sores in the mouth, and for spitting of blood, the dose is a drachma, taken in water if the spitting is not excessive, and in vinegar if it is. Haemorrhage due to wounds also, or to any other cause, it arrests if used by itself or in vinegar. In other ways too it is very useful for wounds, as it promotes cicitrization. It is also sprinkled on ulcerated male genitals, condylomata and chaps of the anus, sometimes in wine, in raisin wine, or else dry by itself, accordning as the treatment may need mild measures or coercive. It also gently arrests exsessive bleeding from haemorrhoids. For dysentery it is injected, and for indigestion it is taken in drink shortly after the evening meal. For jaundice the dose is three oboli in water; for internal purgings pills also are swallowed made up with boiled honey or turpentine resin. It removes hangnails; for eye preparations it is roasted in an earthen vessel and occasionally stirred with a feather so that the roasting may be even throughout.

Litteratur: Ebbell (1937), Plinius vol 4 (1968), Plinius vol 6 (1951), Plinius vol 7 (1966).

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Datum: 2019 09 21 - Uppdaterad: 2009 10 5
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